Welcome to the Gerland group -
Physics of Complex Biosystems
In physics, interactions between particles follow laws. In biology, interactions between biomolecules serve a function. These very different points of view are beginning to merge as research over the past years has demonstrated how, in some exemplary cases, the laws of physics constrain the implementation of biological function.
We investigate several such cases. For instance, we study how the spatial arrangement and coordination of enzymes determines the efficiency of a multi-step reaction. These spatial arrangements can be natural (as in biomolecular complexes) or engineered with the modern methods of bio-nanotechnology. In both cases, fundamental functional tradeoffs emerge, which must be characterized to understand the optimization of such systems.
Methods from theoretical physics help to describe the functioning of these complex biomolecular systems on a quantitative level, while the biological function leads to new questions, with many parallels in the engineering disciplines. Seen from this perspective, a bacterium is a microscopic bioreactor programmed by evolution to rebuild itself from a variable set of resources and in fluctuating environments. How is this bioreactor programmed? Which strategies enable the control of a diverse set of physico-chemical processes in a way as to robustly produce a highly complex product? Quantitative analysis and modeling facilitates insight into the underlying design principles.
Complex systems, ranging from developing embryos to systems of locally communicating agents, display an apparent capability of “programmable” pattern formation: They reproducibly form target patterns, but those targets can be readily changed. A distinguishing feature of such systems is that their subunits are capable of information processing. Here, we explore schemes for programmable pattern formation within a theoretical framework, in which subunits process local signals to update their discrete state following logical rules. We study systems with different update rules, topologies, and control schemes, assessing their capability of programmable pattern formation and their susceptibility to errors. Only a fraction permits local organizers to dictate any target pattern, by transcribing temporal patterns into spatial patterns, reminiscent of the principle underlying vertebrate somitogenesis. An alternative scheme employing variable rules cannot reach all patterns but is insensitive to the timing of organizer inputs. Our results establish a basis for designing synthetic systems and models of programmable pattern formation closer to real systems.
Chromatin dynamics are mediated by remodeling enzymes and play crucial roles in gene regulation, as established in a paradigmatic model, the S. cerevisiae PHO5 promoter. However, effective nucleosome dynamics, i.e. trajectories of promoter nucleosome configurations, remain elusive. Here, we infer such dynamics from the integration of published single-molecule data capturing multi-nucleosome configurations for repressed to fully active PHO5 promoter states with other existing histone turnover and new chromatin accessibility data. We devised and systematically investigated a new class of 'regulated on-off-slide' models simulating global and local nucleosome (dis)assembly and sliding. Only seven of 68145 models agreed well with all data. All seven models involve sliding and the known central role of the N-2 nucleosome, but regulate promoter state transitions by modulating just one assembly rather than disassembly process. This is consistent with but challenges common interpretations of previous observations at the PHO5 promoter and suggests chromatin opening by binding competition.
Adaptation to changing environments is vital to bacteria and is enabled by sophisticated signal transduction systems. While signal transduction by two-component systems is well studied, the signal transduction of membrane-integrated one-component systems, where one protein performs both sensing and response regulation, are insufficiently understood. How can a membrane-integrated protein bind to specific sites on the genome to regulate transcription? Here, we study the kinetics of this process, which involves both protein diffusion within the membrane and conformational fluctuations of the genomic DNA. A well-suited model system for this question is CadC, the signaling protein of the E. coli Cad system involved in pH stress response. Fluorescently labeled CadC forms visible spots in single cells upon stable DNA-binding, marking the end of the protein-DNA search process. Moreover, the start of the search is triggered by a medium shift exposing cells to pH stress. We probe the underlying mechanism by varying the number and position of DNA target sites. We combine these experiments with mathematical analysis and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of lattice models for the search process. Our results suggest that CadC diffusion in the membrane is pivotal for this search, while the DNA target site is just mobile enough to reach the membrane.